Fastener terminology guide

This guide includes +300 common fastener terms with 2D and 3D images


This guide translates +300 common fastener terms from English into French, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese and other languages


This guide includes + 3000 common technical terms

Fastener Terminology

Multi-Language Fastener Terminology

Technical Dictionary

Tube pipe terms ; DOM ; Drawn Over Mandrel ; Tube pipe terms ; HRS ; Hot Rolled Seamless ; Tube pipe terms ; HFS ; Hot Finish Seamless ; Tube pipe terms ; CDS ; Cold Drawn Seamless ; Tube pipe terms ; HREW ; Hot Rolled Electric Weld ; Tube pipe terms ; CREW ; Cold Rolled Electric Weld ; Tube pipe terms ; P&O ; Pickled and Oiled ; Tube pipe terms ; HSS ; Hollow Structural Steel ; Tube pipe terms ; SRA ; Stress Relieved Annealed ; Tube pipe terms ; ANN ; Annealed ; Tube pipe terms ; SMLS ; Seamless ; Tube pipe terms ; WLD ; Welded ; Tube pipe terms ; STLS ; Stainless ; Tube pipe terms ; SS ; Stainless Steel ; Tube pipe terms ; Q&T ; Quenched and Tempered ; Tube pipe terms ; AKDQ ; Aluminum Killed Drawing Quality ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Aluminum (AI)-(0.95-1.30%) ; A deoxidizer. Used to limit the growth of austenite grains. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Bismuth (Bi) ; Used in the same manner as lead as an additive in small amounts to improve machinability in the faster machining grades of certain proprietary screw machine steels. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Boron (B)-(0.001-0.003%) ; A hardenability agent that improves deformability and machinability. Boron is added to fully killed steel and only needs to be added in very small quantities to have a hardening effect. Additions of boron are most effective in low carbon steels. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Carbon (C) ; While carbon is not usually considered an alloying element, it is the most important constituent of steel. It increases the tensile strength, hardness and resistance to wear and abrasion. However, carbon lowers the ductility, machinability and toughness. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Chromium (Cr)-(0.5-18%) ; A key component of stainless steels. At over 12 percent content, chromium significantly improves corrosion resistance. The metal also improves hardenability, strength, response to heat treatment and wear resistance. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Cobalt (Co) ; Improves strength at high temperatures and magnetic permeability. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Columbium (Cb) ; Columbium in stainless steel has an effect similar to titanium and tantalum in making the steel more resistant to carbide precipitation and the resulting inter-granular corrosion. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Copper (Cu)-(0.1-0.4%) ; Most often found as a residual agent in steels, copper is also added to produce precipitation hardening properties and increase corrosion resistance. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Iron (Fe) ; The chief element from which various steels are made. Pure iron lacks strength, is very soft and ductile and does not respond satisfactorily to heat treatment. Commercial iron normally contains other elements, which produce the required physical properties. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Lead (Pb) ; Although virtually insoluble in liquid or solid steel, lead is sometimes added to carbon steels via mechanical dispersion during pouring in order to improve machinability. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Manganese (Mn)-(0.25-13%) ; Increases strength at high temperatures by eliminating the formation of iron sulfides. Manganese also improves hardenability, ductility and wear resistance. Like nickel, manganese is an austenite forming element and can be used in the AISI 200 Series of Austenitic stainless steels as a substitute for nickel. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Molybdenum (Mo)-(0.2-5.0%) ; Found in small quantities in stainless steels, molybdenum increases hardenability and strength, particularly at high temperatures. Often used in chromium-nickel austenitic steels, molybdenum protects against pitting corrosion caused by chlorides and sulfur chemicals. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Nickel (Ni)-(2-20%) ; Another alloying element critical to stainless steels, nickel is added at over 8% content to high chromium stainless steel. Nickel increases strength, impact strength and toughness, while also improving resistance to oxidization and corrosion. It also increases toughness at low temperatures when added in small amounts. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Niobium (Nb) ; Has the benefit of stabilizing carbon by forming hard carbides and, so, is often found in high-temperature steels. In small amounts, niobium can significantly increase the yield strength and, to a lesser degree, the tensile strength of steels as well as have a moderate precipitation strengthening the effect. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Nitrogen (N) ; Increases the austenitic stability of stainless steels and improves yield strength in such steels. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Phosphorus (P) ; Often added with sulfur to improve machinability in low alloy steels. It also adds strength and increases corrosion resistance. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Selenium (Se) ; Increases machinability. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Silicon (Si)-(0.2-2.0%) ; This metalloid improves strength, elasticity, acid resistance and results in larger grain sizes, thereby, leading to greater magnetic permeability. Because silicon is used in a deoxidizing agent in the production of steel, it is almost always found in some percentage in all grades of steel. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Sulfur (S)-(0.08-0.15%) ; Added in small amounts, sulfur improves machinability without resulting in hot shortness. With the addition of manganese hot shortness is further reduced due to the fact that manganese sulfide has a higher melting point than iron sulfide. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Tantalum (Ta) ; Tantalum is used as a stabilizing element in stainless steels. It has a high affinity for carbon and forms carbides which are uniformly dispersed throughout steel, thus preventing localized depletion of carbon at grain boundaries. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Titanium (Ti) ; Improves both strength and corrosion resistance while limiting austenite grain size. At 0.25-0.60 percent titanium content, carbon combines with the titanium, allowing chromium to remain at grain boundaries and resist oxidization. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Tungsten (W) ; Produces stable carbides and refines grain size so as to increase hardness, particularly at high temperatures. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Vanadium (V)-(0.15%) ; Like titanium and niobium, vanadium can produce stable carbides that increase strength at high temperatures. By promoting a fine grain structure, ductility can be retained. ; Alloy Elements in Steel ; Zirconium (0.1%) ; Increases strength and limits grains sizes. Strength can be notably increased at very low temperatures (below freezing). Steel's that include zirconium up to about 0.1% content will have smaller grains sizes and resist fracture. ; Term ; 18-8 Stainless Steel ; An austenitic stainless with approx. 18% chromium and 8% nickel, plus other elements. ; Term ; 1st to 1st ; Measuring from 1st full thread to the other 1st full thread coming from the other end. ; Term ; 2.5D (in machining) ; Refers to a surface which is a projection of a plane into 3rd dimension – although the object is 3-dimensional, there are no overhanging elements possible. Objects of this type are often represented as a contour map that gives the height (i.e., thickness or depth) of the object at each point. ; Term ; 3PL (Third Party Logistics) ; A provider of outsourced logistics services. Logistic services encompass anything that involves management of the way resources are moved to the areas where they are required. ; Term ; 5S ; The 5S system is a lean manufacturing tool that improves workplace efficiency and eliminates waste. Managers and workers achieve greater organization, standardization, and efficiency—all while reducing costs and boosting productivity. ; Term ; 8D ; The eight disciplines (8D) model is a problem solving approach typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals and commonly used by the automotive industry. Its purpose is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems, and it is useful in product and process improvement. ; Term ; A2LA (American Association for Laboratory Accreditation) ; A third-party body that performs accreditations to various international standards, ensuring an unbiased and objective evaluation of your organization's functions. ; Term ; Actuator ; A type of motor that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is operated by a source of energy, typically electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into motion. ; Term ; AECMA ; The European Association of Aerospace Industries - Standardization ; Term ; Aggregate Spend ; Is the process used in the USA to aggregate and monitor the total amount spent by healthcare manufacturers on individual healthcare professionals and organizations (HCP/O) through payments, gifts, honoraria, travel and other means. ; Term ; AISI ; American Iron & Steel Institute standard ; Term ; Anodizing ; An electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. Aluminum is ideally suited to anodizing, although other nonferrous metals, such as magnesium and titanium, also can be anodized. ; Term ; AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) ; The worst tolerable process average (mean) in percentage or ratio that is still considered acceptable ; Term ; ASCII ; American Standard Code For Information Interchange ; Term ; ASME ; American Society of Mechanical Engineers - Domestic Organization with particular fastener standards. ; Term ; ASTM ; American Society for Testing and Materials - Domestic Organization with particular fastener standards. Will find mechanical standards. Not dimensional information. ; Term ; AT ; Austria ; Term ; Austenite ; A solid solution of carbon in a nonmagnetic form of iron, stable at high temperatures. It is a constituent of some forms of steel. 18-8 and "300' series are common terms for Austenitic Stainless Steel, which comprising the vast majority of S/S fasteners. ; Term ; Austenitize ; Heat treatment method by heating a steel above the critical temperature, holding for a period of time long enough for transformation to occur. The material will be hardened if austenitizing is followed by quenching at a rate that is fast enough to transform the austenite into martensite. ; Term ; Axial Tensile Test ; A method for determining behavior of materials under axial tensile loading. The tests are conducted by fixturing the fastener into the test apparatus and then applying a force to the fastener by separating the testing machine crossheads. ; Term ; B Racks ; Bulk racks. No pallets. ; Term ; Backorder (for SBS) ; For SBS this may mean that the parts may actually be on the way, but they just aren't in house yet. ; Term ; Bailment Inventory ; A larger amount of inventory that is sent to the client and stays on their floor until it is put into use. They are basically not charged for the first "bag". They are charged once the next and subsequent bags are opened. Jay says we only have one client like this, and to avoid. ; Term ; Bar fed Machining ; Common automation accessory for high volume turning. Provides a reliable way of delivering material to the machine tool for extended periods of time, saving an operator from continually loading blanks into a chuck. Can make a big difference in a shop’s efficiency and higher production rates. ; Term ; Base Stock Item ; A part that later has a coating or something else added to it before it becomes a finished part. ; Term ; BBI (Brighton Best International) ; Brighton Best International Global importer who sells primarily to other distributers (like us). There are many, but BBI is the largest. ; Term ; Beacon 325 ; A high performance grease specifically formulated for the lubrication of precision equipment operating at moderate and low temperatures (such as on ball bearings). It is made with a synthetic base oil of extremely low viscosity and low volatility plus a lithium soap. ; Term ; Billet ; A bar of metal. b: A piece of semifinished iron or steel nearly square in section made by rolling an ingot or bloom. ; Term ; Bloom ; Used as rolling material in the manufacturing process of rails , seamless pipes etc. ; Term ; Breadman (Inventory Representative) ; This is the person who physically visits clients, assesses inventory and restocks accordingly. ; Term ; BSP ; British Standard Pipe threads. ; Term ; Burnish ; To rub with a tool that serves especially to smooth or polish. ; Term ; Burr ; A burr is a raised edge or small piece of material remaining attached to a workpiece after a modification process. It is usually an unwanted piece of material and is removed with a deburring tool in a process called 'deburring'. ; Term ; Cam out (cam-out) ; A process by which a screwdriver slips out of the head of a screw being driven once the torque required to turn the screw exceeds a certain amount. Repeatedly camming outdamages the screw, and possibly also the screwdriver, and should normally be avoided. ; Term ; CAMDS ; China Automotive Material Data System: Internet based material data collection and evidence tool for a significant amount of Chinese car manufacturers. CAMDS and the related processes appear to be very similar to IMDS. ; Term ; CAP Screw (aka Hex Cap Screw) ; Fastener that will have a washer face under the hex head (tap bolt will not). The washer face on the hex cap screw ensures that you have a smooth surface that is perpendicular to the threads so that if you tighten the head, the assembly will develop the desired clamp load (without a nut). ; Term ; Capacitance ; The ability of a body to store an electric charge ; Term ; Captivation ; A secondary process where the threads of a screw are reduced in diameter. ; Term ; Carbide ; A chemical compound consisting of carbon and a more electropositive element, such as calcium or tungsten. Many carbides, especially those made of carbon and a metal, are very hard and are used to make cutting tools and abrasives. ; Term ; Carbide Precipitation ; Detrimental formation of carbides. Can be caused by heat treatment or welding. Occurs when the chrome and carbon in the austenitic stainless steel are drawn out of the material and react to the atmosphere. It occurs between 800 and 1,400 degrees F. ; Term ; Carburizing ; (or carburization) is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon while the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon-bearing material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide. The intent is to make the metal harder. ; Term ; Casting ; The process where metal is heated until molten. While in the molten or liquid state it is poured into a mold or vessel to create a desired shape. Causes the part to have seams, but typically tooling is less expensive than forge dies. ; Term ; Catalog Part ; Refers to a part associated with a particular manufacturer. ; Term ; CCD ; Closed Container Departure (date) ; Term ; CCD ; Container Cutoff Date or Customs Closing Date (depending on who you ask) ; Term ; CFM (used on PO Notes) ; Indicates shipment confirmed. ; Term ; Clamp Load ; Also called PRELOAD. The clamping force developed in and installed fastener after tightening. If properly determined and applied in a well-designed bolted joint, the fastener should not loosen or experience relaxation leading to fatigue failure. Determined by the bolted joint designer ; Term ; Clean Stock Item ; We have a clean room out in the warehouse. James is the “expert” on this service and could provide more information. This service is used with clients, primarily ASML, who assemble in their own clean room and required cleaned product. ; Term ; CMM Machine ; A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a device for measuring the physical geometrical characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may be computer controlled. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the third moving axis of this machine. ; Term ; CNC (Computer Numerical Control) ; The automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands. This is in contrast to machines that are manually controlled by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone. ; Term ; Cold Forging ; The cold forging manufacturing process is performed at room temperature. The workpiece is squeezed between two dies until it has assumed their shape. To deliver a finished, ready to fit component, the technique includes rolling, drawing, pressing, spinning, extruding and heading. If the volume is there, much less expensive than machining with a CNC machine. ; Term ; Cold Forming (vertical press) ; Forging process using vertical presses. Also volume specific and the process uses dies and punches to convert a specific “slug” or blank of a given volume into a finished intricately shaped part of the exact same volume. The cold forming process generally compliments the cold heading process by adding more intricate shapes to the cold headed blank. ; Term ; Cold Heading (horizontal press) ; Forging process using horizontal presses ; Term ; Collated Screw Gun ; Screw gun that automatically feeds screws from a clip, similarly to how nail guns feed nails. ; Term ; Commingling ; The mixing of two or more lots of fasteners during storage or processing, effectively destroying the lot traceability of the product. Became an issue due to the Fastener Quality Act (FQA). Should be avoided if lot traceability is important. Can cause loss of both lots if one is bad. ; Term ; Commodity Parts ; Those parts that are high volume because they are in widespread use. ; Term ; CPAR ; Corrective Preventive Action Reporting ; Term ; CPFR ; Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment is a business practice that seeks to reduce supply chain costs by promoting greater integration, visibility and cooperation between trading partners' supply chains. ; Term ; CR3 ; Trivalent Chromium Zinc - More environmentally friendly plating material. RoHS Compliant. ; Term ; CR6 ; Hexavalent Chromium Zinc - A rather toxic plating material that is being discontinued. ; Term ; Critical Spare ; An item that is unique to the asset it supports, whose absence would cause a significant loss of asset service availability or a significant negative impact on safety, the environment, or meeting regulatory requirements; is rarely used, and has a long lead time for replenishment. ; Term ; CW (Cold-worked) ; Term meaning "off the shelf" ; Term ; Cyclic testing ; Tests loads ; Term ; DDM ; Data Driven Manufacturing ; Term ; Decarburization ; A surface degradation phenomenon in the forging and heat treating of steels. Decarburization may be described as a metallurgical process in which the surface of steel is depleted of carbon, by heating above the lower critical temperature or by chemical action. Steel forgings are usuallydecarburized. ; Term ; Deep Draw Stamping ; A sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch. It is thus a shape transformation process with material retention. The process is considered "deep" drawing when the depth of the drawn part exceeds its diameter. ; Term ; Desiccant ; A hygroscopic substance used as a drying agent. ; Term ; DFA (Design for Assembly) ; A process by which products are designed with ease of assembly in mind. If a product contains fewer parts it will take less time to assemble, thereby reducing assembly costs. In addition, if the parts are provided with features which make it easier to grasp, move, orient and insert them. ; Term ; DFARS ; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement. A supplement to the FAR that provides DoD-specific acquisition regulations that DoD government acquisition officials – and those contractors doing business with DoD – must follow in the procurement process for goods and services. ; Term ; DFM (Design for Manufacturing) ; The process of designing or engineering a product in order to facilitate the manufacturing process in order to reduce its manufacturing costs. DFM will allow potential problems to be fixed in the design phase which is the least expensive place to address them. ; Term ; Dial Indicator/Gauge ; Any of various instruments used to accurately measure small distances and angles, and amplify them to make them more obvious. ; Term ; DIN ; Deutsches Institut fur Normung (German Institute for Standardization) - Bossard parts use this standard ; Term ; Direct Buy/Directed Sourcing ; When a client instructs us that we must purchase from their source, and we can't source out on our own. May be because the client is afraid to risk a change, such as if the part is custom. ; Term ; Discrepant Material (DM) ; Material that is in non-conformance. ; Term ; DNC ; Distributive Numerical Control is a technology that allows a single computer to be networked with one or more machines that use computer numerical control (CNC) ; Term ; DP Knurl ; Diametral pitch knurls are designed to track uniformly on fractional size stock up to 1" in multiples of 1/32" or 1/64". They are held to closer tolerances for this purpose. ; Term ; Draft Angle ; An important requirement in the die casting process. It is described as an angle or amount of slope that is incorporated into a wall of a die casting mold making the opening of the die cavity wider than its base. It is also known as the draft. ; Term ; Drive Pin (anchor) ; Drive pin anchors are installed in pre-drilled holes with a hammer strike that drives a nail into the anchor body, expanding the anchor to form a tight fit. These anchors secure light loads to masonry materials. ; Term ; Ductility ; In materials science, ductility is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. ; Term ; DYNO Test ; A test using a dynamometer, which is a device for measuring force, torque, or power. For example, the power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover can be calculated by simultaneously measuring torque and rotational speed (RPM). ; Term ; EAU ; Estimated Annual Usage ; Term ; EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) ; A process which allows one company to send information to another company electronically rather than with paper. ; Term ; EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) ; (AKA spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion). A manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). Material is removed from the work piece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes (copper or graphite), called erosion, separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage. ; Term ; ERP (Enterprise resource planning) ; Business process management software that allows an organization to use a system of integrated applications to manage the business and automate many back office functions related to technology, services and human resources. ; Term ; ESM ; Effective notch Stress Method - approach to evaluate the local stress at a notch (weld toe or root), is defined as the total stress assuming linear-elastic material behavior. This method can be effectively used to evaluate the fatigue performance of welded joints. ; Term ; ETO ; Engineer to Order ; Term ; Ex Works ; An international trade term by which a seller makes the product available at a designated location, and the buyer incurs transport costs. ; Term ; F eH (symbol) ; Higher yield strength measurement in a tensile test. This is the highest force the piece can sustain elastically. ; Term ; F eL (symbol) ; Lower yield strength measurement in a tensile test. This is the lower force the piece can sustain elastically. ; Term ; FAI (First Article Inspection) ; A formal method of providing a reported measurement for a given manufacturing process. The method consists of measuring the properties and geometry of an initial sample item against given specifications, for example a drawing. ; Term ; Family Print ; A single print that encompasses many, similar parts. ; Term ; Fanuc ; Fanuc is a brand name for a control system supplier. They make high end numerically controlled "systems" for mills, lathes and other machine tools. ; Term ; Fatigue failure ; The tendency of a material to fracture by means of progressive brittle cracking under repeated alternating or cyclic stresses of an intensity considerably below the normal strength. ; Term ; FC ; Item # for Freight Charge in P21 Order Entry ; Term ; Ferrite (magnet) ; A type of ceramic compound composed of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) combined chemically with one or more additional metallic elements. They are both electrically nonconductive and ferrimagnetic, meaning they can be magnetized or attracted to a magnet. ; Term ; Ferritic Stainless Steel ; Contains iron, carbon and chromium only. Not hardenable through heat treatment. Moderate corrosion resistance. Relatively low strength, low cost. "430" ; Term ; FFF ; Parts that are fully interchangeable with each other and are grouped in a common class of interchangeable parts - a form-fit-function class (FFF class) . ; Term ; Fillet Radius ; A rounded feature at the junction of the head and body of a fastener. Serves to reduce the possibility of a stress concertino point (stress riser), thus increasing the fatigue resistance of the fastener. Is often formed by rolling on high oerformance fasteners. ; Term ; FIM ; Full Indicator Movement. Indicator measurement of concentricity/straightness. ; Term ; FMEA or PROCESS FMEA ; Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or assembly process, or a product or service. “Failure modes” means the ways, or modes, in which something might fail. ; Term ; Forging ; The application of thermal and mechanical energy to steel billets or ingots to cause the material to change shape while in a solid state. The tight grain structure makes it generally stronger and handle impact better than castings. ; Term ; FPT Thread ; Female Pipe Thread. Internal Thread. ; Term ; Friction Coefficient ; A value that shows the relationship between the force of friction between two objects and the normal reaction between the objects that are involved. It is a value that is sometimes used in physics to find an object's normal force or frictional force when other methods aren't available. ; Term ; GADSL ; Global Automotive Declarable Substance List: Global standard, which includes declarable and restricted substances for finished materials and parts in the Automotive value chain. This list ; Term ; Galvanizing ; The process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting. The most common method is hot-dip galvanizing, in which parts are submerged in a bath of molten zinc. ; Term ; G-Code ; (Also RS-274), which has many variants, is the common name for the most widely used numerical control (NC) programming language. It is used mainly in computer-aided manufacturing to control automated machine tools. ; Term ; Geomet ; GEOMET® 321 is applied to protect fasteners and many type of metallic parts from corrosion and is used in many industries. It can be combined with PLUS®, DACROLUB® or GEOKOTE® topcoats to provide a very broad range of friction coefficients. It is the most widely used product in zinc flake technology. ; Term ; Gold Flash ; Secondary process plating that is mainly just for color and is usually from 5-10 microns thick. Gold 'plate' usually runs from 12 to 65 microns thick and is more for a protective surface. ; Term ; GPM (Gallons per Minute) ; ; Term ; GR&R (Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility) ; A statistical tool that measures the amount of variation in the measurement system arising from the measurement device and the people taking the measurement. ; Term ; GV Spec ; ; Term ; Hot Forging ; The hot forging manufacturing process is performed at extreme high temperature (up to 1150 °C for steel, 360 to 520 °C for al-alloys, 700 to 800 °C for cu-alloys). This temperature is necessary in order to avoid strain hardening of the metal during deformation ; Term ; Hydrogen Embrittlement ; Weakness causing breakage to parts when the parts are not baked when necessary. ; Term ; ID/OD Fit ; Refers to the diameter of a pipe. Some pipes are measured base on their outside diameter, or O.D. Others are measured by their interior diameter, or I.D. ; Term ; ID/OD Grinders ; Can grind diameters, shoulders, tapers, fillets, grooves, etc. on the inside or outside of cylindrical parts to tolerances of up to +/- 0.0005 and extremely fine finishes. ; Term ; IFI ; The Industrial Fasteners Institute - Organization with particular fastener standards. ; Term ; IMDS ; International Material Data System is a global data repository that contains information on materials used by the automotive industry. Several leading auto manufacturers use the IMDS to maintain data for various reporting requirements. In the IMDS, all materials present in finished automobile manufacturing are collected, maintained, analyzed and archived. IMDS facilitates meeting the obligations placed on automobile manufacturers, and thus on their suppliers, by national and international standards, laws and regulations. ; Term ; IMDS ; International Material Data System: Internet based material data collection and evidence tool for the whole automotive value chain. ; Term ; Impeller ; The rotating part of a centrifugal pump, compressor, or other machine designed to move a fluid by rotation. 2. A rotating device turned by the flow of water past a ship's hull, used to measure speed or distance traveled. ; Term ; Imperial Threads ; UNC, UNF, BSW and BSF, pitch is expressed in numbers of threads per inch, eg: 1/4 -20 UNC, the 20 being 20 threads per inch or 20 TPI. ; Term ; Ingot ; A piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing. In steelmaking, it is the first step among semi-finished casting products. Ingots usually require a second procedure of shaping, such as cold/hot working, cutting, or milling to produce a useful final product. ; Term ; ISI ; Initial Sample Inspection ; Term ; ISO ; International Organization for Standardization ; Term ; ISR ; Inspection ? Report ; Term ; JIS ; Japanese Industrial Standards (similar to ISO) ; Term ; Keietsu ; (Literally system, series, grouping of enterprises, order of succession) is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings. It is a type of informal business group. ; Term ; Keps - K-Lock Nuts ; Similar to Sems in that they are nuts with pre-assembled lock washers (usually external tooth but sometimes conical). It can save time and make the job easier handling a single piece. But if either the nut or washer is damaged, both must be replaced. ; Term ; Kips ; Torque tension measurement. Symbol for Thousands of Pounds Force. ; Term ; Knurling ; Knurling is a manufacturing process, typically conducted on a lathe, whereby a pattern of straight, angled or crossed lines is rolled into the material. Purpose is to create a rough surface for better gripping. Different types such as straight and diamond knurles. ; Term ; Kolsterising ; A proprietary Bodycote diffusion process which enhances the mechanical properties of austenitic and duplex stainless steel, nickel base and cobalt chromium alloys without affecting the good corrosion resistance of the base material. The process introduces massive amounts of 'carbon' into the 'austenitic' structure and leads to the formation of what is called S-phase or expanded austenite. As a result, the steel surface gets 4-5 times harder (900-1200HV) than the untreated material and finally leads to an increase in wear resistance, fatigue life, erosion and cavitation resistance. ; Term ; Ksi ; Symbol for Thousands of LBS Per Square Inch. ; Term ; lbf ; Pound Force - A unit of force measurement that helps define the expected tensile strength performance of a specific fastener ; Term ; LMC (Least Material Condition) ; Less material is left in the part according to the tolerance level provided. ; Term ; LME (London Metal Exchange) ; World centre for industrial metals trading. Three trading platforms are used as the global reference price and both the metal and investment communities use the LME to transfer or take on risk. ; Term ; Lot Number ; A number used to distinguish one lot of a given product from another. (Not the heat number). Must follow to all packages and documents to be effective. May change as product moves through the distribution chain. ; Term ;